Osteoporosis: Disorder of Bone
Osteoporosis is a condition that occurs due to the gradual loss of bone mineral density, leading to bones becoming pores, fragile, and increased susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis often called a “silent disease” is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue.
Diagnosis: A bone mineral density scan is the only method for diagnosis of osteoporosis. The National
Osteoporosis Foundation recommends the following individuals for BMD scan:
- All women above 65 regardless of risk factors
- All younger postmenopausal women with one or more risk factors
- Post-menopausal women who present with fractures
The T-score is the number of standard deviations by which a person’s BMD differs from that of healthy young adults. In general, the lower the T-score, the more fragile the person’s bones. The T-score is therefore a rough indication of the need for treatment in adults.
The World Health Organization has defined the following categories:
- Normal Bone: T-score better than -1
- Osteopenia: T-score between -1 & -2.5
- Osteoporosis: T-score less than -2.5
Osteoporosis: A Global Health Burden
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Osteoporosis is second only to cardiovascular disease as a global healthcare problem.
- Affects over 200 million people worldwide.
- Over 50% of women & 30-45% of men over age 50 have osteopenia/osteoporosis.
- A 10% loss of bone mass in the vertebrae can double the risk of vertebral fractures, and similarly, a 10% loss of bone mass in the hip can result in a 2.5 times greater risk of hip fracture.
- 1 out of 8 males and 1 out of 3 females in India suffers from osteoporosis, making India one of the
- Largest affected countries in the world.
- In most Western countries, while the peak incidence of Osteoporosis occurs at about 70-80 years of age, in India it may afflict younger, at age 50-60.
Osteoporosis Signs & Symptoms:
In its early stages, there are no symptoms associated with osteoporosis but as it progresses it can cause
- Fractures of the vertebrae, wrist, or hips
- Low back pain
- Neck pain
- Bone pain or tenderness
- Loss of height over time
- Stooped posture
Osteoporosis Risk Factors:
Non-Modifiable Risk Factors Modifiable Risk factors
- Age Alcohol
- Family history of Smoking
- Menopause/ Hysterectomy Poor nutrition
- Long-term glucocorticoid therapy Insufficient exercise